AFRICAN MUSLIMS IN AMERICA – End Notes - Bibliography - Comments

By: Hajj

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This paper was delivered during the First Conference of the Ahle Baite, held in Tehran Iran in 1990.

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  1. Richard Wright – “Negro Companions of the Spanish Explorers”.  American Anthropologist.  (American Anthropological Association)  IV, No.2, (1902)

  2. Laila Hasib  - “Muslims from Africa Reached the ‘New World’ Six Centuries before Columbus”.  Mahjubah Magazine, No.109, Tehran, Iran. (June 1993).

  3. Current, Williams, Freidel, & Brinkley – American History a Survey. 2.  Vol I to 1877, pp.217-228.

  4. Sir Arthur Helps, Spanish Conquest in America, I, Pg.360.

  5.  Ibid -American History a Survey, pg33.  (II.) Charshee C. L. McIntyre, “Free Blacks, A Troublesome and Dangerous Population”, Doctoral Thesis – State University of New York at Stoneybrook, (1984) unpublished. (III) Houston Chronicle,) “Largest human Sacrifice”, Article concerning a proposed monument to be erected on Goree island, Senegal. A tribute to the victims of the 19th Century African Slave Trade. (Oct. 6, 1988). (IV) Ali A. Mazrui, “The Africans, a Triple Heritage”, Praeger Publ. (1986).

  6. Allen D. Austin, “African Muslims in Ante Bellum America” A Source Book.  Garland Press, NYC (1980).

  7. C. Eric Lincoln, “The American Muslim Mission In Context of American Social History”, an article contained in The Muslim Community in North America, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, University of Alberta Press, pg. 450 (1983).

  8. Phillip K. Hitti, “The History of the Arabs”, (London), Macmillan Press, pg.450, (1970).

  9. B. O. Oloruntimehin, “The Segu Tukalor Empire”, Ibadan History Series, N.Y. Humanities Press, (1972). Describes the history of the Fulani and their impact on the history of West Africa. (II) Terry Alford,  “A Prince Among Slaves,” Macmillan Press, London. A full documentary of the life and times of ‘Ibrahima Diallo’.  There is an interesting copy of a painting done of ‘Ibrahima’ in this book, and the caption of the painting is written in his hand and identifies himself in Arabic as: Ismi Abdurahman, meaning, my name is Abdurahman.

  10. ………Ibid, Austin.

  11. Hajji D.A. Haroon, “Towards an understanding of African/American Music and Culture”, Directed particularly to those Muslims who believe music is forbidden by Islam and should be forbidden in all forms.  The paper attempts to construct a defense for the basic spirituality inherent in all African creativity, particularly in music.

  12. A discussion held with Professor Abdul-Aziz Sachedina, Professor of Islamic Studies at the University of Virginia at Charlottesville. This talk took place in Dr. Sachedina’s office, while on a visit to the University, (September 1990). (II) This phenomenon is also discussed at length by Prof. David Elkins in his book entitled Slavery.

  13. … Ibid, Hitti, The History of The Arabs, pp.541. (II) Please note that in the same book, mention is made of The Murabit Dynasty in Spain (1090-1147) an interesting statement is made concerning this dynasty: “this dynasty as was expected, was short lived. It fulfilled the fated cycle of Asiatic and African monarchies with rapidity. A generation of efficient militarism followed by sloth and corruption leading to disintegration and fall. …. Hitti, pp.545. (III) On the same note we find that according to Historian/Sociologist Ibn Khaldun: “all dynastic history moves in cycles, as it draws nearer to decay and disintegration, the dynasty shrinks inward under pressure of the challenging outsider and his group until it finally collapses. Then the new dynasty proceeds upon the path of power, only to suffer the fate of his predecessor”. Muqaddimah, Rosenthal translation, pg X11, Introduction, Bolingen series (1967).

  14. Dee Brown, “Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee”, An Indian history of The American West. ‘Painful, shocking reading –which conveys not how the West was won, but how the West was lost’. N.Y. Bantam Books, (1972). (II) Vine Deloria Jr., Custer Died for Your Sins, Indian Manifesto, N.Y. Avon Books (1969).

  15. Works Progress Administration, (WPA), Georgia Writers, Savannah Unit, “Drums and Shadows”, Survival Studies Among the Georgia Negroes. University of Georgia press, (1940). (II) Y. N. Kly, “The African-American Muslim Minority: 1776-1900”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol. 10:1, 1/1989, UK, (1974). (III) Two interesting films, one called “Daughters of The Dust”, by Ms Julia Dash which depicts the family and descendents of the African Patriarch Bilali Muhammad, a legendary Sapelo Island survivor. And “Sankofa”, a film made by Ethiopian filmmaker Haile Gerima, which also depicts slave rebellion in the Antilles –several of the main characters have Muslim names.

  16. Arthur H. Faucet, “Moorish Science Temple of America”, an article published in Religion, Society, and The Individual, N.Y. Macmillan Co. (1957).

  17. C. Erik Lincoln, “The Black Muslims in America”, Boston: Beacon Press, revised edition (1973). A definitive study of the development of The Nation of Islam under the leadership of Elijah Mohammad. (A published Doctoral Thesis.)

  18. ………IBID, Kly.

  19. Gog and Magog appear in the New Testament as two nations that make war on the Kingdom of Christ after being deceived by Satan (Rev. 20:8). However in the Old Testament (Ezekiel 38-39) Gog is a prince of the land of magog who leads the barbarian hordes of the North in an assault on Israel. Some scholars think that Gog was Gynges, a King of Lydia in the 600’s B.C. (II) In Genesis 10:2, Magog is a son of Japheth, and one of the peoples that lived in Armenia or Turkey. Two famous statues in London are called Gog and Magog. They were erected in the 1400’s and were replaced in 1708, and again after WWII. (World Book Encyclopedia, 1982)

  20. Hajj D. A. Haroon, “The Sun of Islam Shall Rise In the West”, unpublished anthology of articles related to the development of Islam in America. A Postage stamp issued by the Iranian Government which depicts Al Hajj Malik al Shabazz (Malcolm X) one hand raised to his ear, calling the Adhan against a background of the Prophets Mosque in Medina –a multi colored aura emanating from his body symbolic of the various colors of mankind is on the cover –clearly showing a Muslim son of the West that rose and was extinguished. The same stamp is used on the cover of the present edition in your hands.