AFRICAN MUSLIMS IN AMERICA – End Notes - Bibliography - Comments
This paper was delivered during the
First Conference of the Ahle Baite, held in Tehran Iran in 1990.
Richard Wright –
“Negro Companions of the Spanish Explorers”. American
Anthropologist. (American Anthropological Association) IV, No.2,
Laila Hasib - “Muslims
from Africa Reached the ‘New World’ Six Centuries before
Columbus”. Mahjubah Magazine, No.109, Tehran, Iran. (June
Freidel, & Brinkley – American History a Survey. 2. Vol I
to 1877, pp.217-228.
Sir Arthur Helps,
Spanish Conquest in America, I, Pg.360.
History a Survey, pg33. (II.) Charshee C. L. McIntyre, “Free
Blacks, A Troublesome and Dangerous Population”, Doctoral
Thesis – State University of New York at Stoneybrook, (1984)
unpublished. (III) Houston Chronicle,) “Largest human
Sacrifice”, Article concerning a proposed monument to be
erected on Goree island, Senegal. A tribute to the victims of the
19th Century African Slave Trade. (Oct. 6, 1988). (IV)
Ali A. Mazrui, “The Africans, a Triple Heritage”, Praeger Publ.
Allen D. Austin,
“African Muslims in Ante Bellum America” A Source Book.
Garland Press, NYC (1980).
C. Eric Lincoln,
“The American Muslim Mission In Context of American Social
History”, an article contained in The Muslim
Community in North America, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada,
University of Alberta Press, pg. 450 (1983).
Phillip K. Hitti, “The
History of the Arabs”, (London), Macmillan Press, pg.450,
B. O. Oloruntimehin, “The
Segu Tukalor Empire”, Ibadan History Series, N.Y. Humanities
Press, (1972). Describes the history of the Fulani and
their impact on the history of West Africa. (II) Terry Alford, “A
Prince Among Slaves,” Macmillan Press, London. A full
documentary of the life and times of ‘Ibrahima Diallo’. There is
an interesting copy of a painting done of ‘Ibrahima’ in this book,
and the caption of the painting is written in his hand and
identifies himself in Arabic as: Ismi Abdurahman, meaning,
my name is Abdurahman.
Hajji D.A. Haroon, “Towards
an understanding of African/American Music and Culture”, Directed
particularly to those Muslims who believe music is forbidden by
Islam and should be forbidden in all forms. The paper attempts to
construct a defense for the basic spirituality inherent in all
African creativity, particularly in music.
A discussion held
with Professor Abdul-Aziz Sachedina, Professor of Islamic
Studies at the University of Virginia at Charlottesville. This
talk took place in Dr. Sachedina’s office, while on a visit to the
University, (September 1990). (II) This phenomenon is also
discussed at length by Prof. David Elkins in his book entitled
… Ibid, Hitti, The
History of The Arabs, pp.541. (II) Please note that in the same
book, mention is made of The Murabit Dynasty in Spain
(1090-1147) an interesting statement is made concerning this
dynasty: “this dynasty as was expected, was short lived. It
fulfilled the fated cycle of Asiatic and African monarchies with
rapidity. A generation of efficient militarism followed by sloth
and corruption leading to disintegration and fall. …. Hitti,
pp.545. (III) On the same note we find that according to
Historian/Sociologist Ibn Khaldun: “all dynastic history
moves in cycles, as it draws nearer to decay and disintegration,
the dynasty shrinks inward under pressure of the challenging
outsider and his group until it finally collapses. Then the new
dynasty proceeds upon the path of power, only to suffer the fate
of his predecessor”. Muqaddimah, Rosenthal translation, pg
X11, Introduction, Bolingen series (1967).
Dee Brown, “Bury My
Heart at Wounded Knee”, An Indian history of The American
West. ‘Painful, shocking reading –which conveys not how the West
was won, but how the West was lost’. N.Y. Bantam Books, (1972).
(II) Vine Deloria Jr., Custer Died for Your Sins, Indian
Manifesto, N.Y. Avon Books (1969).
Administration, (WPA), Georgia Writers, Savannah Unit, “Drums
and Shadows”, Survival Studies Among the Georgia Negroes.
University of Georgia press, (1940). (II) Y. N. Kly, “The
African-American Muslim Minority: 1776-1900”, Journal of
Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol. 10:1, 1/1989, UK, (1974). (III) Two
interesting films, one called “Daughters of The Dust”, by
Ms Julia Dash which depicts the family and descendents of the
African Patriarch Bilali Muhammad, a legendary Sapelo Island
survivor. And “Sankofa”, a film made by Ethiopian filmmaker
Haile Gerima, which also depicts slave rebellion in the Antilles
–several of the main characters have Muslim names.
Arthur H. Faucet,
“Moorish Science Temple of America”, an article published in
Religion, Society, and The Individual, N.Y. Macmillan Co. (1957).
C. Erik Lincoln, “The
Black Muslims in America”, Boston: Beacon Press, revised
edition (1973). A definitive study of the development of The
Nation of Islam under the leadership of Elijah Mohammad. (A
published Doctoral Thesis.)
Gog and Magog appear
in the New Testament as two nations that make war on the Kingdom
of Christ after being deceived by Satan (Rev. 20:8). However in
the Old Testament (Ezekiel 38-39) Gog is a prince of the land of
magog who leads the barbarian hordes of the North in an assault on
Israel. Some scholars think that Gog was Gynges, a King of Lydia
in the 600’s B.C. (II) In Genesis 10:2, Magog is a son of Japheth,
and one of the peoples that lived in Armenia or Turkey. Two famous
statues in London are called Gog and Magog. They were erected in
the 1400’s and were replaced in 1708, and again after WWII. (World
Book Encyclopedia, 1982)
Hajj D. A. Haroon, “The
Sun of Islam Shall Rise In the West”, unpublished anthology of
articles related to the development of Islam in America. A Postage
stamp issued by the Iranian Government which depicts Al Hajj Malik
al Shabazz (Malcolm X) one hand raised to his ear, calling the
Adhan against a background of the Prophets Mosque in Medina –a
multi colored aura emanating from his body symbolic of the various
colors of mankind is on the cover –clearly showing a Muslim son of
the West that rose and was extinguished. The same stamp is used on
the cover of the present edition in your hands.