By: Hajj

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This paper was delivered during the First Conference of the Ahle Baite, held in Tehran Iran in 1990.

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This paper was originally written in 1967 as a Sociology term paper while I was enrolled as a student at The Borough of Manhattan Community College and was originally titled Black Muslims in America 1500-1900?

It has been rewritten several times. The first revision came about as a result of an invitation to attend the First Conference of The Ahle Baite, which took place in Tehran, Iran in 1990. The second revision came about at the request of an old friend Professor Charlotte (Charshee) McIntyre, PhD, now deceased. And the third revision came about at the suggestion of Sheikh Rashid Hassan, PhD, Anthropologist and BBC (Somali) News Broadcaster.

A vintage pre-Civil War Abolitionist article, circa: 1815 was added as an appendix. It will not be included in this version that has been specially prepared for the Nuradeen website. It may however be included in the near future.

This paper was dedicated to the memory of Rabindranath Tagore, the Bengali National Poet, Musician, Philosopher and Educator (1861-1941). Author GITANJALI (Song Offerings) in 1913. For which he (the first non-European) won the Nobel Prize in 1913.