In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful.
AS SIDQ – The Truthfulness
By ABUBAKR KAROLIA
[Updated on October 6, 2007]
The truthfulness of a lover affects even the lifeless;
then should it be found strange that it affects man's heart?
The truthfulness of Moses (to his Creator) affected his staff and the mountain;
nay, it also affected that great, splendid sea.
As for the truthfulness of Muhammad, it affected
the beautiful face of the Moon and also the shining Sun.
Rumi (1207-1273 C.E.)-
On many occasions, Muslims look for a
precise word or title that captures the inner spirit, meaning and form of the
Islamic message. The title “As-Sidq” perfectly describes the attributes of a person
who is loved or graced by Allah due to truly following the path of Tauheed -
the belief in the Oneness of Allah and living according to His Divine Message.
Examples of these model characters are
mentioned in the Noble Qur’an in the following Surah 4, "An Nisa",
The Women, verses 68 and 69. They are people that are guided by Allah on the
straight path and who obey Him and His Last Messenger, the Prophet Muhammed
68:“And indeed We would have guided them on the straight path
69: and whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger - the Rasul
Will be with those whom Allah has blessed:
The Prophets - Al Nabiyeen and the Truthful - As Siddiqin,
The Martyrs - As Shuhada and the Righteous - As Salihun
What excellent company such people are.”
From the above verses, it
can be seen that Allah has blessed four categories of people and they are the
Prophets – Al Anbiya, The Truthful – As Siddiqin, The Martyrs – As Shuhada and
The Righteous – As Salihun and that they are excellent company and companions.
For our purpose we would like to
investigate the character of the Siddiqin – those truthful people and why they are
so highly regarded and worthy in the eyes of the Creator.
The word Siddiq emanates from the
Arabic root s-d-q which is also the basis of the word “Sadieq” (a friend). The
root letters s-d-q are used to derive Sidq, yasduqu and sadaqa. The essence of
its meaning refers to a true, sincere and upright companion. One may refer to
one’s closest friend as a “Sadieq”. While the word Saadiq refers to a person
who is truthful or has spoken the truth.
The Qur’an al-Kareem uses the word
Sadaqah for charity. Sa-da-qa means, “He spoke the truth” but may also mean
that “he kept or fulfilled a promise” or “he gave charity”. Real charity is
when it is given with sincere and benevolent intentions. Thus the word Sadaqah also
qualifies for that feeling that is compassionate, which moves our heart for the
suffering of others and what motivates us to help others. Compassion is the
best quality one can have towards other human beings and creatures.
Giving obligatory - Zakah or voluntary
charity - Sadaqah are both referred to in the Noble Qur’an since such giving is
to purify one’s wealth and to be constantly interconnected to Allah with the
knowledge that He is the ultimate provider. This act of charity is to be in submission to
Allah and eradicates meanness and hoarding. Practicing Zakah and Sadaqah (other
voluntary charity) are practical steps of strengthening Iman – faith and it is
a path to inner and outer purification. Zakah is a pillar of Islam and an
obligatory act of charity and purification and whereas other voluntary acts of sadaqah
(generosity to those in need) enhance your nearness and belief in Allah.
Truthfulness is as effective as the "elixir" of God's Greatest Name. When asked about the Greatest Name, Bayazid al-Bistami (804-874 C.E.) answered:
“Show me the Least Name among God's Names so that I may show you the Greatest One. If there is something as effective (for the acceptability by God of prayers and actions) as the Greatest Name, it is truthfulness. Whichever Name is recited truthfully, it becomes the Greatest.” Thus, real submission to Allah is truthfulness in expression of our belief in Him.
A note worthy point on this subject of
As Sidq – truthfullness is to glance at the character of beloved Prophet’s (S) before
Prophethood. His reputation as a man who was fair,
honest and with superb conduct became well known. He always spoke the truth, he was always
dependable, and he always fulfilled his promises. His honesty was beyond question
and to such an extent that he earned the nick-name of "Al‑Saadiq
means: The Truthful, The Trustworthy. This was an honour not given to anyone before in
In those early days of the Prophet’s mission he kept the company of people as AbuBakr (R). From the early years AbuBakr (R) was known for his good an upright nature. His parents named him Abu Kaaba (the servant of the Kaaba) and when he became a Muslim the Prophet changed his name to Abdullah (the servant of Allah). However, he was called AbuBakr  because in Arabic a young camel is called 'Bakr'. Since AbuBakr (R) in his youth, loved looking after camels and their health & treatment, people started calling him AbuBakr (The father of camels).
He was a close and constant companion of the Rasul (S) and later he referred
to him as AbuBakr (R) As Siddiq – the absolutely attesting. Of
him the Prophet (S) said, “If I had taken to myself a beloved friend, I would
have taken Abu Bakr (R) as my beloved friend; but he is my brother and my
This title of As Siddiq – the truthful,
was given to AbuBakr (R) by the Prophet Muhammed (S) when he related his
experience of the night journey to Masjid al Aqsa in
From the above verses 68-69 from Surah
4, “An Nisa”, The Women, we clearly appreciate that whoever obeys and
acknowledges Allah and the Messenger of Islam will ultimately be in the company
of whom The Creator has blessed and graced.
All good actions done by people bring benefits of
one kind or another. It is natural for righteousness to bear sweet fruits and
fragrant flowers. On the other hand, evil leads to harm and loss. The above
verse is a commentary on this principle of goodness, which brings enormous
benefits and bounteousness to those people giving and receiving in the way of
Imam Abu Abdullah Qurtubi, a commentator – Mufasir of the Noble
Qur’an (died in 1273 C.E.) gives an interesting background to this revelation.
He reports from Aisha (RA), the Prophet’s (S) wife and mother of the faithful,
that one day a companion of the Prophet (S) called Thauban (R) came to visit
him. Usually Thauban (R) was cheerful but today he looked miserable. The
Messenger of Allah enquired, "What’s the matter O Thauban?" He
replied ‘O Messenger of God whenever I am sad I come to visit you and that
makes me happy, but now I worry that when I think about the Hereafter, there
you will be very near to Allah but I will be far away and I will be unable to
even see you. It is this thought of separation which is worrying me.” The
Messenger said nothing and just then the Great angel Jibra’eel arrived with
this Divine message: telling Thauban (R), “you need not worry if you truly love
and obey Allah and His Messenger then you will be with them”.
One of the most
delightful pleasures of life is to be in the company of the people one loves. People
like to be with their families, their beloved, relatives and friends. Here the
Glorious Qur’an is giving
the obedient servant the assurance and promise of being in the company of the
four most honoured categories of people, in the Hereafter: The Prophets, The
Truthful, the Martyrs and the Righteous.
The Siddiqin - The truthful are people who have a clear sense of right
and wrong and when the truth is presented they readily accept it. Many of the
followers of the Prophet (S) had this quality, but no one more so than AbuBakr
Akbar (the greatest Siddiq).
His love of Islam and the blessed Prophet (S) was sincerely displayed and his
ability to judge between truth and falsehood, illustrates the meaning of
As- Sidq (real
trueness to Allah and the Prophet (S)).
For example, when the
Messenger presented Islam to him for the first time, AbuBakr (R) immediately
testified and became a Muslim. Similarly, when the Messenger told him the story
of his miraculous night journey, AbuBakr (R) was the first to believe him. He
knew the magnitude of the Prophet’s (S) character and because of his clear
sightedness and truthfulness he testified accordingly.
From the above
discussion one can appreciate AbuBakr (R) as the Imam – leader of truthfulness
and therefore, he is As Siddiq – the truthful. This station is attributed to
AbuBakr (R) because he was a friend – among the awliya of Allah and he was
truthful to Him. The essence of this characteristic is to establish a close
relationship as a friend of the Creator.
The Noble Qur’an in Surah 49, “Al Hujurat”, Inner Apartments, verse 15 advises that,
“The believers - Mu’minun are only those who have faith - Iman in Allah and His Messenger, and have subsequently had no doubt and they struggle – (make) Jihad with their wealth and themselves in the Way of Allah; they are the truthful ones (As-Saadiqun).”
This verse refers to
those who believe in Allah and the Rasul (S) and are true in their actions and
words and they struggle with all their means and especially with their wealth
and thereafter their lives in the way of Allah - they are the Saadiqun - those
truthful in the expression of Imaan.
A beautiful example that imbibes this verse is the generosity of AbuBakr, As Siddiq, when he gave his wealth to support the Prophet (S) and Islam. A sound and an authentic – “hasan” hadith from Abu Daud (817-888 C.E.) tells us that AbuBakr (R) was the quickest and the most generous to rush to a good deed. In this case there was an appeal for funds from the Prophet (S), to assist the cause of Islam. Umar (R) saw an opportunity to outdo AbuBakr (R) and committed a large amount. The Prophet (S) saw what Umar (R) brought and asked him what he had left for his family. Umar (R) answered that he came to the Prophet (S) with half of his wealth and left the other half for his family. When AbuBakr (R) was asked what he had left for his family. He answered that he had brought all of his wealth and had left Allah and his Rasul (S) for his family. On hearing the sacrifice of AbuBakr (R), Umar then realized that he could never surpass the generosity and helpfulness of AbuBakr (R).
there were two (persons) of them in the Cave, when he said to his companion,
“Do not be despondent, Allah is with us.” Then Allah sent down His serenity
upon him and reinforced him with troops you could not see.”
incident, Allah engraved His name on AbuBakr (R) Siddiq’s heart and due to his unstinting support, generosity,
sincerity and truthfulness and a companion of the Prophet he became a teacher
of the inner dimension of Islam.
Ibn Ajiba (1747-1849 C.E.) the
celebrated Moroccan Sufi in his exposition of Ibn Ata’alla’s (died 1309 C.E.)
seminal sufi treatise Al-Hikam informs us that to refine our hearts, we must be
in the state of Ihsan – beauty, perfection and to do deeds of excellence to
worship Allah as though you see Him, and if you can’t visualize Him, then know
that He sees you. He said that our beloved Prophet (S) had reached this high
stage, which is to witness Allah. The Shaykh advices that for a person wanting
to achieve this state of the heart, the essentials that must be in place is to
have Al-Ikhlas - to be sincere and faithful to Allah, to achieve a state of
As-Sidq - truthfulness for and towards the Creator and to have a calm, tranquil
and contented heart by the remembrance of the Creator - Tumaaninah.
condition of As Sidq - truthfulness gives a willing trust in other men within
defined limits. Its outward signs are ready trust, in Allah, in the Messengers,
in the Books, The Angels, The Last Day, The Balance and the Decree. This in
turn engenders strong companions and sets up a noble community. The company of
the “Saadiq” (person true in fulfilling the orders of Allah) is the perfect
setting for contemplation and witnessing. The “zikr” for strengthening the
portion of the greatest of inner qualities is the “zikr” of acceptance of Allah
and His vast power. It should be constantly on the tongue for the one who longs
for this station.
The character of truthfulness is the
most trusted and firmest road that leads to Allah, and the truthful are
fortunate travellers upon it. A Siddiq is truthful to the essence of action
and distinguishes believers from hypocrites and the people of
Junaid al-Baghdadi (830-910 C.E.) a great friend - Wali of Allah says: A loyal, truthful person changes states at least forty times a day (in order to preserve personal integrity), while a hypocrite remains the same for forty years without feeling any trouble or unease (over his or her deviation).
The initial degree of truthfulness is sincerity and behaving the same whether in public or in private. This is followed by being true in all thoughts, feelings, actions, intentions and states. The truthful are those valiant people whose feelings, thoughts, and actions do not contradict one another. The most truthful are those heroes who are absolutely true in all of their imaginations, intentions, feelings, thoughts, actions, and gestures for the love of Allah.
The nature of As Siddiq – an absolutely truthful person, consists of developing a spiritual rank until it attains perfection. One has, therefore, to be alert at all times and compensate for one’s shortcomings and with consistency, constancy and refining one’s acts and within a short while can hope to establish the perfect state of Sidq - truthfulness.
This state of As Sidq – truthfulness to the declaration of Imaan, also delivers a person from the punishment of the fire as the following Surah 92 “Al-Layl”, The Night, verses 14-21 illustrates:
14. “I have warned you of a Fire which rages,
15. In which only the wretched will roast –
16. Those who denied and turned away.
17. Those with most taqwa – cautious awareness of Allah - will be far removed from it:
18. Those who give their wealth - Zakah to purify themselves –
19. Not to repay someone else for a favour done –
20. Desiring only the Face of their Lord Most High.
21. They will certainly be satisfied (in paradise).”
Ibn al-Jawzi (1126-1200 C.E.) a famous jurist and a historian during the Baghdad Caliphate, states that many Muslim scholars and the Companions of the Prophet (S) were certain that these verses referred to Abu Bakr (R). Among all the people, he was called “al-Atiq” - delivered from the punishments of the Fire – due to being the most devoted and pious.
Amongst the friends of Allah – the
Wali’s that ranked among the siddiqin,
was Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani (1077-1166 C.E.).
At the age of 18, his thirst for knowledge and eagerness for the company
of the awliya – friends of Allah took him to the city of
It is related that as he was about to leave
home on this momentous journey, his widowed mother sewed forty gold coins
inside his coat as part of his inheritance, and as parting advice told him to
be forever truthful. The caravan with whom he was travelling had gone as far as
In the course of their looting and pillaging, one of the robbers asked him whether he had anything with him and he truthfully replied that he had forty gold coins sewn in his coat. The robber obviously thought he was joking and narrated this incident to his chief who decided to come and see this young man.
When his coat was torn open, sure enough there were forty gold coins. The gang leader was astounded. He asked Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani as to why he revealed this secret when he could have kept it to himself. Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani told him that his mother had advised him not to lie and he was duty bound to obey his mother. On hearing this, the gang leader was overpowered with remorse, repented, accepted Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani as his Shaykh and so did all his followers and they went on to acquire wilayah (sainthood) themselves. This is how Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani came to be ranked among the Siddiqin.
The reality of this station of As Sidq – truthfulness, is self orientation, awareness and transformation of the self with wisdom, action and deeds for the love and worship of Allah and as His close friend. The recognition of the truth is to remove the disease in the heart of hypocrisy – nifaq. Cultivating and establishing a character and state of Sidq – truthfulness together with Ikhlas – sincerity and Taqwa – cautious awareness of Allah, is a condition of a purified heart as the Hadith Qudsi  renders that the entire universe cannot contain Allah but a heart of a Mu’min – a practicing believer, can.
As Sidq – truthfulness is the attribute of the servant of Allah and it balances the inner and outward purification of the self. Truthfulness is achieved by realizing all states and stations towards the love of the Creator, so much so that sincerity needs truthfulness, and it does not need anything accept intending Allah by the act of His worship.
May Allah guide us to be of those that He has graced and to be in the company of the best companionship. Aameen
4 July 2007
s-d-q- An Arabic root word and the essence of its meaning refers to a true, sincere and upright companion. The root also derives the words sidq, yasduku and sadaqa.
As Sidq - Truthfulness
As sadieq – A close friend
Sadaqah – a word that denotes the giving of voluntary charity.
As Saadiq – a person who has spoken the truth
As Saadiqun – Truthful in the attesting of Iman – faith
As Siddiq – The truthful or absolutely attesting person
Sadaqta – You have spoken the truth
As siddiqin – The truthful. The As siddiqin are gone to Madina
As siddiqun – The truthful. Those are the As siddiqun
 According to a famous Egyptian historian, Muhammad Hussain Haikal
 To be brother or a companion is greater in Islam, because this relationship for the Creator.
 A Hadith is a saying of the Prophet of Islam
 Iqaad Al Himam fi Sharah Al Hikam - An explanation of the Hikam of Ibn Ata’alla Iskandri by Ibn Ajiba
 The Hundred steps by Shaykh Abdulqadir Al Murabit-1998
 Hadith Qudsi – A hadith that is narrated by the Rasul in the words of the Creator
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